Author(s): Urakami Y
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Few methods can predict the prognosis and outcome of traumatic brain injury. Electroencephalographic (EEG) examinations have prognostic significance in the acute stage of posttraumatic coma, and some EEG variables have been correlated with outcome. Furthermore, spindle activity and reactivity in the acute stage have been associated with good recovery. Assessments of consciousness based on EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings provide valuable information for evaluating residual function, forming differential diagnoses and estimating prognosis. This study objectively investigated how fast spindles could relate to the recovery of consciousness and cognitive function during the post-acute to chronic stages of diffuse axonal injuries (DAIs). Sleep stage 2 was examined in 7 healthy participants and 8 patients with DAIs. Simultaneous EEG and MEG recordings were performed in the post-acute (mean 80 days) and chronic (mean 151 days) stages of recovery. Magnetoencephalography enabled equivalent current dipole estimates of fast spindle sources. Clinical recovery was evaluated by consciousness, neuropsychological examination, and outcome. Six severe and two moderate injuries were studied in patients with favorable 1-year outcomes. In the sub-acute stage, significant decreases were detected in the frequency, amplitude, and cortical activation source strengths of spindle activities, but these recovered during the chronic stage. In the chronic stage, the Wechsler adult intelligence factor scale and subset patterning revealed significant improvement in cognitive function. These results suggested that spindles may reflect recovery of consciousness and cognitive function following a DAI.
This article was published in Clin EEG Neurosci
and referenced in International Journal of Neurorehabilitation