Author(s): Ducloux D, Deschamps M, Yannaraki M, Ferrand C, Bamoulid J,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) have been reported to be associated with a blunted immune response to microbial pathogens, as well as a decreased risk of atherosclerosis in the general population. We assessed the impact of the two TLR4 variants on the risk of severe infection, the incidence of acute rejection, and the occurrence of atherosclerotic complications in renal transplant recipients (RTR). METHODS: TLR-4 polymorphisms were assessed in a cohort of 238 RTR. Post-transplant atherosclerotic events, acute rejection, severe bacterial infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, and opportunistic infections were evaluated as outcomes. RESULTS: The patients were followed for a mean duration of 95 +/- 29 months after transplant. TLR4 polymorphism was observed in 27 (11.3\%) RTR. Subjects with TLR4 polymorphisms were less likely to experience post-transplant atherosclerotic events (RR 0.44; 95\% CI 0.21 to 0.93; P= 0.02) and acute rejection (RR 0.41; 95\% CI 0.30 to 0.83; P= 0.01), but presented severe bacterial infections (RR 1.33; 95\% CI 1.12 to 1.67; P= 0.01) and opportunistic infections (RR 3.03; 95\% CI 1.72 to 8.29; P= 0.008) more frequently. TLR4 polymorphism was marginally associated with CMV disease (RR 1.47; 95\% CI 0.95 to 2.64; P= 0.08). CONCLUSION: RTR with TLR4 polymorphism present a lower risk of post-transplant atherosclerotic events and acute allograft rejection, but experience severe infectious episodes more frequently. This subset of RTR may benefit from a less potent immunosuppression regimen, along with increased preventive measures against infectious agents.
This article was published in Kidney Int
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research