Author(s): Kovacs KA, Gay JD
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Abstract Subclinical infarction of abnormal parathyroid tissue likely occurs relatively frequently, but remission of primary hyperparathyroidism due to spontaneous massive infarction of a parathyroid adenoma is a rare occurrence. We describe a patient who was unique in that spontaneous remission was accompanied by disappearance of the parathyroid adenoma on serial parathyroid scans. We identified 11 other patients in the literature with sufficient documentation of clinical remission of primary hyperparathyroidism due to spontaneous massive infarction of a parathyroid adenoma and review their clinical features as well. Manifestations varied according to the delay in diagnosis, alteration in serum calcium, location, and degree of associated hemorrhage. Ages ranged from 19 to 73 years, and both sexes were affected. Preceding symptoms suggestive of hypercalcemia and/or prior documentation of hypercalcemia were present in 10 cases. Neck pain was present at the time of infarction in 6/12 patients, and a neck mass in 7/12. Only 1 patient died. The initial calcium level done postinfarction was "normal" in 7/12 patients, low in 3/12, and high in 2/12. The parathyroid adenoma was 2 cm or larger in 8/12 patients. In all patients who had parathyroidectomy, histopathology confirmed extensive infarction (bland or hemorrhagic) of the adenoma. The clinical scenarios encountered were 3 hypocalcemic crises, 2 hypercalcemic crises ("acute parathyroid intoxication"), 1 respiratory arrest secondary to a mediastinal hematoma, 2 patients with neck pain as the major complaint, and 4 with no symptoms apart from the premorbid symptoms of hypercalcemia.
This article was published in Medicine (Baltimore)
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Case Reports