Author(s): Krauter P, Martinelli R, Williams K, Martins S
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Abstract Chromium can be removed from ground water by the unicellular yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Local ground water maintains chromium as CrO42- because of bicarbonate buffering and pH and Eh conditions (8.2 and +343 mV, respectively). In laboratory studies, we used commercially available, nonpathogenic S. cerevisiae to remove hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from ground water. The influence of parameters such as temperature, pH, and glucose concentration on Cr(VI) removal by yeast were also examined. S. cerevisiae removed Cr(VI) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with a slightly greater rate occurring under anaerobic conditions. Our kinetic studies reveal a reaction rate (Vmax) of 0.227 mg h-1 (g dry wt biomass)-1 and a Michaelis constant (Km) of 145 mg/l in natural ground water using mature S. cerevisiae cultures. We found a rapid (within 2 minutes) initial removal of Cr(VI) with freshly hydrated cells [55-67 mg h-1 (g dry wt biomass)-1] followed by a much slower uptake [0.6-1.1 mg h-1 (g dry wt biomass)-1] that diminished with time. A materials-balance for a batch reactor over 24 hours resulted in an overall shift in redox potential from +321 to +90 mV, an increase in the bicarbonate concentration (150-3400 mg/l) and a decrease in the Cr(VI) concentration in the effluent (1.9-0 mg/l).
This article was published in Biodegradation
and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology