Author(s): Vashist A, Heller EN, Brown EJ Jr, Alhaddad IA
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is an important clinical entity that can lead to uncontrolled hypertension and progressive renal failure. The most common causes of RAS are atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. Because the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension is established only when revascularization of a stenosed renal artery results in cure or improvement in patients hypertension, establishment of a causal relationship between RAS and hypertension continues to present a challenge. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is essential in the diagnosis of this condition. METHODS: Multiple tests, both invasive and noninvasive, are available as screening methods. Angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis of RAS. Besides its value in establishing the diagnosis, it provides anatomic information regarding the site and severity of stenoses and appropriate revascularization strategies. Magnetic resonance angiography and duplex ultrasonography are the most promising and accurate noninvasive screening tests available, even in the presence of renal insufficiency. With advances in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty techniques, including renal artery stenting, many more patients are eligible for less invasive and effective revascularization strategies compared with the traditional surgical procedures. RESULTS: Revascularization of a stenosed renal artery is associated with preservation of renal function and better control of hypertension, unstable angina, and congestive heart failure. Because atherosclerotic RAS is associated with generalized atherosclerosis, aggressive risk factor modification and antiplatelet therapy are integral in the management of RAS regardless of the revascularization strategy.
This article was published in Am Heart J
and referenced in Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology