alexa Renal dopamine and sodium homeostasis.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities

Author(s): Jose PA, Eisner GM, Felder RA

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During the past decade, it has become evident that dopamine plays an important role in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure. Dopamine exerts its actions through two families of dopamine receptors, designated D1-like and D2-like, which are identical in the brain and in peripheral tissues. The two D1-like receptors--D1 and D5 receptors--expressed in mammals are linked to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. The three D2-like receptors--D2, D3, and D4,--are linked to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Dopamine affects fluid and electrolyte balance by regulation of renal excretion of electrolytes and water through actions on renal hemodynamics and tubular epithelial transport and by modulation of the secretion and/or action of vasopressin, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and endothelin B receptors (ETB) receptors. It also affects fluid and sodium intake by way of "appetite" centers in the brain and alterations of gastrointestinal tract transport. The production of dopamine in neural and non-neural tissues and the presence of receptors in these tissues suggest that dopamine can act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. This renal autocrine-paracrine function, which becomes most evident during extracellular fluid volume expansion, is lost in essential hypertension and in some animal models of genetic hypertension. This deficit may be caused by abnormalities in renal dopamine production and polymorphisms or abnormal post-translational modification and regulation of dopamine receptor subtypes.

This article was published in CurrHypertens Rep and referenced in Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities

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