alexa Repeated mesenchymal stem cell treatment after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia has distinct effects on formation and maturation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes leading to restoration of damage, corticospinal motor tract activity, and sensorimotor function.
Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology

Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research

Author(s): van Velthoven CT, Kavelaars A, van Bel F, Heijnen CJ

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Abstract Birth asphyxia is a frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. We show that a single mesenchymal stem cell treatment at 3 d (MSC-3) after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in postnatal day 9 mice improved sensorimotor function and reduced lesion size. A second MSC treatment at 10 d after HI (MSC-3+10) further enhanced sensorimotor improvement and recovery of MAP2 and MBP (myelin basic protein) staining. Ipsilateral anterograde corticospinal tract tracing with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) showed that HI reduced BDA labeling of the contralateral spinal cord. Only MSC-3+10 treatment partially restored contralateral spinal cord BDA staining, indicating enhanced axonal remodeling. MSC-3 enhanced formation of bromodeoxyuridine-positive neurons and oligodendrocytes. Interestingly, the second gift at day 10 did not further increase new cell formation, whereas only MSC-10 did. These findings indicate that increased positive effect of MSC-3+10 compared with MSC-3 alone is mediated via distinct pathways. We hypothesize that MSCs adapt their growth and differentiation factor production to the needs of the environment at the time of intracranial injection. Comparing the response of MSCs to in vitro culture with HI brain extracts obtained at day 10 from MSC-3- or vehicle-treated animals by pathway-focused PCR array analysis revealed that 29 genes encoding secreted factors were indeed differentially regulated. We propose that the function of MSCs is dictated by adaptive specific signals provided by the damaged and regenerating brain. This article was published in J Neurosci and referenced in Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research

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