Author(s): Hodge JC, Bub J, Kaul S, KajdacsyBalla A, Lindholm PF
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Abstract To determine the molecular mechanisms of aggressive prostate cancer behavior, we studied RhoGTPases in high and low invasive variants of PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Prior studies with these cells revealed that elevated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) expression and activity were necessary for the highly invasive phenotype. In the current study, increased RhoA expression was found in the PC-3 highly invasive cells as compared with the PC-3 low invasive cells through cDNA array and Western blot analyses. Similarly, RhoA activity, as measured by the Rhotekin binding assay, was elevated in the PC-3 highly invasive cells. Transfection of these highly invasive cells with dominant negative RhoA N19 or treatment with 1.0 micro g/ml RhoA inhibitor C3 exoenzyme demonstrated that RhoA activity was necessary for both NF-kappaB activity and cellular invasion of a Matrigel reconstituted basement membrane. Furthermore, stable transfection of the PC-3 highly invasive cells with constitutively active RhoA Q63L resulted in activation of NF-kappaB activity and Matrigel invasion, effects reversed by treatment of the cells with C3 exoenzyme. RhoA was also shown to act through the motility component of the invasion process. RhoA activity was therefore both necessary and sufficient for the elevated NF-kappaB, invasion, and motility activities of the PC-3 highly invasive cells. These findings suggest molecular targets to control cancer cell invasion and aid in the development of definitive tools for predicting the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells.
This article was published in Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology