alexa Resistance in gram-negative bacteria: enterobacteriaceae
Microbiology

Microbiology

Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

Author(s): Paterson DL

Abstract Share this page

The emergence and spread of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae are complicating the treatment of serious nosocomial infections and threatening to create species resistant to all currently available agents. Approximately 20% of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections and 31% of Enterobacter spp infections in intensive care units in the United States now involve strains not susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. Such resistance in K pneumoniae to third-generation cephalosporins is typically caused by the acquisition of plasmids containing genes that encode for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), and these plasmids often carry other resistance genes as well. ESBL-producing K pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are now relatively common in healthcare settings and often exhibit multidrug resistance. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae have now emerged in the community as well. Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae that cause gastroenteritis may also be ESBL producers, which is of relevance when children require treatment for invasive infections. Resistance of Enterobacter spp to third-generation cephalosporins is most typically caused by overproduction of AmpC beta-lactamases, and treatment with third-generation cephalosporins may select for AmpC-overproducing mutants. Some Enterobacter cloacae strains are now ESBL and AmpC producers, conferring resistance to both third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is usually the result of chromosomal mutations leading to alterations in target enzymes or drug accumulation. More recently, however, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance has been reported in K pneumoniae and E coli, associated with acquisition of the qnr gene. The vast majority of Enterobacteriaceae, including ESBL producers, remain susceptible to carbapenems, and these agents are considered preferred empiric therapy for serious Enterobacteriaceae infections. Carbapenem resistance, although rare, appears to be increasing. Particularly troublesome is the emergence of KPC-type carbapenemases in New York City. Better antibiotic stewardship and infection control are needed to prevent further spread of ESBLs and other forms of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae throughout the world.

This article was published in Am J Med and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords