alexa Retention capacity of an organic bio-mixture against different mixtures of fungicides used in vineyards.
Nursing

Nursing

Journal of Nursing & Care

Author(s): Monaci E, Coppola L, Casucci C, Perucci P, Vischetti C

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Abstract A laboratory experiment was carried out to test the efficiency of a bio-mixture made up of pruning residues at two (PR2) and five (PR5) years of composting and wheat straw (STW) in the biological cleaning of water contaminated by different mixtures of fungicides usually employed in vineyards. The experiment was conducted and reproduced at a scale of 1:100 of operating field conditions. Commercial formulates of penconazole (PC), (RS)-1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)pentyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole), dimetomorph (DM), (EZ)-4-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl]morpholine), azoxystrobin (AZ), (methyl (E)-2-{2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate), iprovalicarb (IP), (isopropyl 2-methyl-1-[(RS)-1-p-tolylethyl]carbamoyl-(S)-propylcarbamate), metalaxyl (MX), (methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate), fludioxonil (FL), (4-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile) and cyprodinil (CY), (4-cyclopropyl-6-methyl-N-phenylpyrimidin-2-amine) were mixed in water and discharged into the bio-mixture following the time schedule of the treatments carried out in the grapevine in real field conditions. At each treatment, contaminated water with fungicides was circulated repeatedly through the bio-mixture to enhance the sorption of fungicides. In fact, it retained them between 98-100\% with the exception of MX of which it was able to retain only 90.5\%. The adsorption/desorption experiment showed that repeated circulation of water, instead of enhancing MX retention, can easily remove about 30\% of MX already adsorbed by the bio-mixture. This finding suggests that water contaminated by very mobile pesticides should be discharged at the end of field treatments without re-circulating the water in order to avoid the release of pesticides weakly adsorbed on the bio-mixture. This article was published in J Environ Sci Health B and referenced in Journal of Nursing & Care

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