Author(s): Luo X, Frishman LJ
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Abstract PURPOSE: To determine retinal pathway origins of pattern electroretinogram (PERG) in macaque monkeys using pharmacologic dissections, uniform-field flashes, and PERG simulations. METHODS: Transient (2 Hz, 4 reversals/s) and steady state (8.3 Hz, 16.6 reversals/s) PERGs and uniform-field ERGs were recorded before and after intravitreal injections of L-AP4 (not APB) (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, 1.6-2.0 mM), to prevent ON pathway responses; PDA (cis-2,3-piperidinedicarboxylic acid, 3.3-3.8 mM), to block activity of hyperpolarizing second- and all third-order retinal neurons; and TTX (tetrodotoxin, 6 μM), to block Na+-dependent spiking. PERGs were also recorded from macaques with advanced unilateral experimental glaucoma, and were simulated by averaging ON and OFF responses to uniform-field flashes. RESULTS: For 2-Hz stimulation, L-AP4 reduced both negative- and positive-going (N95 and P50) amplitudes in transient PERGs, and their counterparts, N2 and P1 in simulations, to half-amplitude. PDA eliminated N95 and N2, but increased P50 and P1 amplitudes, in that it enhanced b-waves. As previously reported, severe experimental glaucoma or TTX eliminated photopic negative responses, N95, and N2; glaucoma eliminated P50 and reduced P1 amplitude; TTX reduced P50 and hardly altered P1. For 8.3-Hz stimulation, L-AP4 eliminated the steady state PERG and reduced simulated PERG amplitude, whereas PDA enhanced both responses. TTX reduced PERG amplitude to less than half; simulations were less reduced. Blockade of all postreceptoral activity eliminated transient and steady state PERGs, but left small residual P1 in simulations. CONCLUSIONS: Transient PERG receives nearly equal amplitude contributions from ON and OFF pathways. N95 reflects spiking activity of ganglion cells; P50 reflects nonspiking activity as well. Steady state PERG, in contrast, reflects mainly spike-related ON pathway activity.
This article was published in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology