Author(s): Frenz DA, Liu W, GalinovicSchwartz V, Van De Water TR
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Abstract Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A that is teratogenic when present in excess during mammalian embryogenesis. We have investigated the effect of embryonic exposure to nonphysiological levels of all-trans RA on the development of the mouse inner ear. Dysmorphogenesis of both vestibular and auditory portions of the inner ear, and abnormal formation of the surrounding capsule are produced by exposure to teratogenic levels of RA at an embryonic age of 9 days (E9). There was no observable teratogenic effect of RA when administered at earlier (i.e., E7 or E8) or later (i.e., E10) stages of otic morphogenesis. We hypothesize that exposure to high levels of RA during a critical period of early otic morphogenesis interferes with the inductive tissue interactions required for inner ear development.
This article was published in Teratology
and referenced in Anatomy & Physiology: Current Research