Author(s): Shah HN
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Recently there has been an increasing interest in the application of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for managing renal calculi. In this review we discuss its application for the management of lower calyceal (LC) stones less than 10 mm in maximum dimension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature was reviewed to summarize the technical development in flexible ureterorenoscopy and its accessories. Further, the indications, outcome and limitations of RIRS for LC calculi < 1 cm were reviewed. RESULTS: Use of access sheath and displacement of LC stone to a more favorable location is increasingly employed during RIRS. Patients who are anticoagulated or obese; those with adverse stone composition and those with concomitant ureteral calculi are ideally suited for RIRS. It is used as a salvage therapy for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) refractory calculi but with a lower success rate (46-62\%). It is also increasingly being used as a primary modality for treating LC calculi, with a stone-free rate ranging from 50-90.9\%. However, the criteria for defining stone-free status are not uniform in the literature. The impact of intrarenal anatomy on stone-free rates after RIRS is unclear; however, unfavorable lower calyceal anatomy may hamper the efficacy of the procedure. The durability of flexible ureteroscopes remains an important issue. CONCLUSIONS: RIRS continues to undergo significant advancements and is emerging as a first-line procedure for challenging stone cases. The treatment of choice for LC calculi < 1 cm depends on patient's preference and the individual surgeon's preference and level of expertise.
This article was published in Indian J Urol
and referenced in Medical & Surgical Urology