Author(s): Wang J, Boja ES, Tan W, Tekle E, Fales HM,
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Abstract In response to growth factor stimulation, many mammalian cells transiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to the elevation of tyrosine-phosphorylated and glutathionylated proteins. While investigating EGF-induced glutathionylation in A431 cells, paradoxically we found deglutathionylation of a major 42-kDa protein identified as actin. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the glutathionylation site is Cys-374. Deglutathionylation of the G-actin leads to about a 6-fold increase in the rate of polymerization. In vivo studies revealed a 12\% increase in F-actin content 15 min after EGF treatment, and F-actin was found in the cell periphery suggesting that in response to growth factor, actin polymerization in vivo is regulated by a reversible glutathionylation mechanism. Deglutathionylation is most likely catalyzed by glutaredoxin (thioltranferase), because Cd(II), an inhibitor of glutaredoxin, inhibits intracellular actin deglutathionylation at 2 microM comparable with its IC(50) in vitro. Moreover, mass spectral analysis showed efficient transfer of GSH from immobilized S-glutathionylated actin to glutaredoxin. Overall, this study revealed a novel physiological relevance of actin polymerization regulated by reversible glutathionylation of the penultimate cysteine mediated by growth factor stimulation.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics