Author(s): Anderson UD, Olsson MG, Kristensen KH, kerstrm B, Hansson SR
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Abstract Worldwide the prevalence of preeclampsia (PE) ranges from 3 to 8\% of pregnancies. 8.5 million cases are reported yearly, but this is probably an underestimate due to the lack of proper diagnosis. PE is the most common cause of fetal and maternal death and yet no specific treatment is available. Reliable biochemical markers for prediction and diagnosis of PE would have a great impact on maternal health and several have been suggested. This review describes PE biochemical markers in general and first trimester PE biochemical markers specifically. The main categories described are angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors, placental proteins, free fetal hemoglobin (HbF), kidney markers, ultrasound and maternal risk factors. The specific biochemical markers discussed are: PAPP-A, s-Flt-1/PlGF, s-Endoglin, PP13, cystatin-C, HbF, and α₁-microglobulin (A1M). PAPP-A and HbF both show potential as predictive biochemical markers in the first trimester with 70\% sensitivity at 95\% specificity. However, PAPP-A is not PE-specific and needs to be combined with Doppler ultrasound to obtain the same sensitivity as HbF/A1M. Soluble Flt -1 and PlGF are promising biochemical markers that together show high sensitivity from the mid-second trimester. PlGF is somewhat useful from the end of the first trimester. Screening pregnant women with biochemical markers for PE can reduce unnecessary suffering and health care costs by early detection of mothers at increased risk for PE, thus avoiding unnecessary hospitalization of pregnant women with suspect or mild PE and enabling monitoring of the progression of the disease thereby optimizing time for delivery and hopefully reducing the number of premature births. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Placenta
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology