Author(s): Haines L, Wan KC, Lynn R, Barrett TG, Shield JP
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children <17 years of age and to investigate the relationship of diabetes with increasing childhood obesity in the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland (ROI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Active monthly reporting of cases by consultant pediatricians occurred through the framework of the British Pediatric Surveillance Unit, with additional reports from specialist diabetes nurses. All children <17 years of age and diagnosed by their clinician as having non-type 1 diabetes from 1 October 2004 to 31 October 2005 were included. RESULTS: A total of 168 confirmed cases of non-type 1 diabetes were reported, resulting in a national incidence (excluding the ROI) of 1.3 x 100,000(-1) x year(-1). Of these, 40\% were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes giving a minimum incidence of 0.53 x 100,000(-1) x year(-1). Children of ethnic minorities were greatly overrepresented, with those of black and South-Asian origin (England data only) having an incidence of 3.9 and 1.25 x 100,000(-1) x year(-1), respectively, compared with 0.35 x 100,000(-1) x year(-1) in those defined as white. Of those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, 95\% were overweight and 83\% obese according to International Obesity Task Force guidelines. Eighty-four percent had a family history of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes is still less common than type 1 diabetes in U.K. children. However, compared with previous prevalence data, the frequency of type 2 diabetes appears to be increasing. Incidence among ethnic minorities is far higher than in whites, as previously described in the U.S. Increased adiposity and family history of type 2 diabetes were strongly associated with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in U.K. children.
This article was published in Diabetes Care
and referenced in Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior