Author(s): Evans MW, Sung AD, Gojo I, Tidwell M, Greer J
CD4 count ≤200×10(6) cells/L has been identified as a predictor of short survival in HIV-associated acute myeloid leukemia (HIV-AML), but karyotype, which is the best predictor of survival in AML, has not been evaluated in HIV-AML patients. A retrospective cohort of 31 patients was created from 9 local cases and 22 published cases. HIV-AML karyotypes were heterogeneous and were similar in distribution to those in HIV-negative AML. Among intensively treated patients, most achieved complete remission, but succumbed to infectious complications, mostly non-opportunistic, during consolidation therapy. Median survival for intensively-treated patients with CD4 counts ≤200×10(6) cells/L was 8.5 months, compared to 48 months for those with >200×10(6) CD4 cells/L (p=0.03). In contrast, AML karyotype did not predict survival (p=0.43), albeit with small numbers in each karyotype group. Thus, CD4 count is a strong predictor of short survival in HIV-AML patients regardless of karyotype. Studies evaluating innovative strategies for infection prophylaxis and for improving immune reconstitution are needed.