Author(s): VazquezRoig P, Andreu V, Blasco C, Pic Y
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Abstract This study is focused on the occurrence of 17 pharmaceuticals in waters (34 samples), sediments (16 samples) and soils (23 samples, at two different depths) in a typical Mediterranean coastal wetland (Pego-Oliva marsh, Spain). Soil and sediment samples were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Aqueous extracts from PLE and water samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pharmaceuticals were detected in concentrations up to 112 ng/L in water samples, up to 15.1 ng/g sediments and up to 8.4 ng/g in soil. In surface waters, ibuprofen and codeine were the compounds more frequently detected (up to 59 ng/L and 63 ng/L, respectively). Ground and tap water samples analyzed were also contaminated with pharmaceuticals. The 94\% of sediments and the 80\% of agricultural soils were polluted (mostly by carbamazepine and acetaminophen). Diffusion of codeine and fluoroquinolones to deeper soil horizons was observed. Possible relationships between variables were established by Pearson correlations and principal components analysis (PCA). An environmental risk assessment based on the available long-term data was performed. Results showed actual risk for the lowest trophic level, and for fishes, due to the presence of fluoroquinolones and ibuprofen. Nevertheless, the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is not limited only to an ecological problem since contamination also affects drinking water, being a potential risk to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Sci Total Environ
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta