Author(s): AlShehri MA, Eid WA
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Abstract Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of permanent damage to central nervous system, which may result in neonatal death or manifest as cerebral palsy or mental deficiency. A matched-case control study of neonatal encephalopathy was conducted in Abha General Hospital, Abha City, Saudi Arabia to determine some possible risk factors for HIE. A total of 57 term infants with clinical evidence of HIE at birth were recruited over a period of 3 years, and compared with the same number of a control group of normal newborns. The cumulative incidence of HIE was 4.9 per 1000 live births (95\% CI: 3.1 to 6.3). Moderate or severe encephalopathy occurred in about 63\% of all infants, with seizures in 67\% of these. All the 57 (100\%) infants with encephalopathy required one or more of resuscitation measures compared with only 8 (14\%) of the control. Significant antepartum risk factors for HIE include: primiparity (OR=3.13), nonaccessibility to antenatal care (OR=1.89), and pregnancy-induced hypertension(OR=2.13). Significant possible labour and delivery risk factors include: noncephalic presentation (OR=2.76)), antepartum haemorrhage (OR=4.32), instrumental delivery (OR=7.91), and prolonged second stage of labour (OR=6.67). In conclusion, both antepartum and intrapartum factors are important in the causation of HIE in Abha city. Improvement of both antenatal care and care during delivery is a necessity.
This article was published in Afr J Med Med Sci
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology