Author(s): Jha UM, Satyanarayana S, Dewan PK, Chadha S, Wares F,
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Abstract SETTING: Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), >15\% of previously-treated patients in the reported 2006 patient cohort defaulted from anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the timing, characteristics, and risk factors for default amongst re-treatment TB patients. METHODOLOGY: For this case-control study, in 90 randomly-selected programme units treatment records were abstracted from all 2006 defaulters from the RNTCP re-treatment regimen (cases), with one consecutively-selected non-defaulter per case. Patients who interrupted anti-tuberculosis treatment for >2 months were classified as defaulters. RESULTS: 1,141 defaulters and 1,189 non-defaulters were included. The median duration of treatment prior to default was 81 days (25\%-75\% interquartile range 44-117 days) and documented retrieval efforts after treatment interruption were inadequate. Defaulters were more likely to have been male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95\% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), have previously defaulted anti-tuberculosis treatment (aOR 1.3 95\%CI 1.1-1.6], have previous treatment from non-RNTCP providers (AOR 1.3, 95\%CI 1.0-1.6], or have public health facility-based treatment observation (aOR 1.3, 95\%CI 1.1-1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Amongst the large number of re-treatment patients in India, default occurs early and often. Improved pre-treatment counseling and community-based treatment provision may reduce default rates. Efforts to retrieve treatment interrupters prior to default require strengthening.
This article was published in PLoS One
and referenced in Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology