Author(s): Remis RS, Gurwith MJ, Gurwith D, HargrettBean NT, Layde PM, Remis RS, Gurwith MJ, Gurwith D, HargrettBean NT, Layde PM, Remis RS, Gurwith MJ, Gurwith D, HargrettBean NT, Layde PM, Remis RS, Gurwith MJ, Gurwith D, HargrettBean NT, Layde PM
Abstract Share this page
Abstract The authors carried out a case-control study in 1982-1983 to investigate the possible influence of behavioral factors on the risk of urinary tract infection. Study participants were college women attending a student health service. Cases were 43 women with culture-confirmed urinary tract infection. There were two control groups: 149 women with upper respiratory infection and 227 women visiting the gynecology clinic. Using each set of controls, the study confirmed that sexual intercourse is a risk factor and that there is a dose-response effect for increasing levels of coital frequency. The study also found that use of the diaphragm was significantly associated with urinary tract infection (odds ratios 3.0, 2.3), an association which remained significant even after controlling for possible confounding by coital frequency. The findings did not show an association with many of the factors commonly believed to be important such as type of clothing worn and volume of fluids consumed. PIP: A case study was conducted among college women using a student health service at a university in southern Michigan to identify and evaluate behavioral factors which may be determinants of urinary tract infection. Women who presented to the student health service with symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infection and found to have pyuria on urinalysis were offered the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial comparing antibiotic regimens in the treatment of their urinary infection. Women with identified structural abnormalities of the urinary tract were not admitted to the study. On their 1st visit, women enrolled in the antibiotic study were asked to complete a questionnaire for the epidemiologic study described here. Midstream specimens were obtained during the 1st visit prior to therapy and were cultured quantitatively using standard methods. A patient with symptoms of acute urinary tract infection was included as a case if the urine culture was positive or probable. 2 different control groups were used to assess risk factors for urinary tract infection. For the 1st control group, women presenting to the student health service with coryza and/or sore throat, an oral temperature of less than 38.9 degrees Centigrade, and a clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated viral upper respiratory infection were asked to complete the same questionnaire as cases. For the 2nd control group, women attending the gynecology clinic at the same student health service for routine scheduled pelvic examinations and/or contraceptive services were asked to complete the same questionnaire. Cases were entered into the study from March through December 1982. The students used as controls participated from March 1982 through March 1983. The subjects completed a standard self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire, asking primarily about activities during the 3 weeks prior to completion of the questionnaire. 47 women with presumptive urinary tract infection participated in the clinical trial. 43 cases of confirmed urinary tract infection were identified, 38 with a positive and 5 with a probable urine culture result. In all, 149 upper respiratory infection controls and 227 gynecology controls participated. The history of previous urinary tract infection was significantly greater in cases than in either of the control groups. 4 variables were included in the final logistic model: coital frequency within 3 weeks, use of the diaphragm within 3 weeks, history of previous urinary tract infection, and age. Coital frequency during the previous 3 weeks was associated strongly with illness, with generally higher risk at higher frequencies. A significant association with the diaphragm was observed in comparison with both control groups. The findings failed to show an association with many of the factors commonly believed to be important such as type of clothing worn and volume of fluids consumed.
This article was published in Am J Epidemiol
and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access