Author(s): Simpson SA, Joesch JM, West II, Pasic J
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: We describe risk factors associated with patients experiencing physical restraint or seclusion in the psychiatric emergency service (PES). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records, nursing logs and quality assurance data for all adult patient encounters in a PES over a 12-month period (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). Descriptors included demographic characteristics, diagnoses, laboratory values, and clinician ratings of symptom severity. χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Restraint/seclusion occurred in 14\% of 5335 patient encounters. The following characteristics were associated with restraint/seclusion: arrival to the PES in restraints; referral not initiated by the patient; arrival between 1900 and 0059 hours; bipolar mania or mixed episode; and clinician rating of severe disruptiveness, psychosis or insight impairment. Severe suicidality and a depression diagnosis were associated with less risk of restraint or seclusion. CONCLUSION: Acute symptomatology and characteristics of the encounter were more likely to be associated with restraint/seclusion than patient demographics or diagnoses. These findings support recent guidelines for the treatment of agitation and can help clinicians identify patients at risk of behavioral decompensation. © 2014.
This article was published in Gen Hosp Psychiatry
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Case Reports