Author(s): Huong DL, Amoura Z, Duhaut P, Sbai A, Costedoat N,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of ovarian failure and the fertility of women treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) according to the underlying inflammatory disease. METHODS: Review of the data of 84 consecutive women: 56 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 28 with other diseases, mainly Wegener's granulomatosis and systemic vasculitides. RESULTS: The mean age at IVCY initiation was 29 +/- 10 years (range 13-53). The mean dosage was 0.9 +/- 0.14 g per pulse (range 0.5-1), and the mean number of pulses 13 +/- 6.5 (range 3-42). With a mean followup of 5.1 +/- 3.7 years, 23 women developed amenorrhea, with a mean duration of 4 +/- 3.6 months between IVCY initiation and amenorrhea. Amenorrhea was sustained in 19 women (13 with SLE and 6 with other diseases, NS). The mean age at ovarian failure onset was 40 +/- 7.6 years. The risk of ovarian failure correlated with the age at IVCY institution (p < 0.0001), and was independent of underlying inflammatory disease. Eighteen women (13 with SLE and 5 with other diseases) became pregnant during or after CY therapy, with a total of 22 pregnancies. The mean age at IVCY initiation, and the mean number of IVCY (maximum 40 pulses) before pregnancy were similar in women with SLE and those with other diseases. Six pregnancies occurred during IVCY therapy, which ended in induced abortion (n = 3), spontaneous abortion (n = 1), and normal pregnancy after IVCY withdrawal (n = 2) in women who wished to keep their pregnancy despite the risk of teratogenicity. Sixteen pregnancies occurred 2.9 +/- 2.1 years (range 1-9) after IVCY withdrawal. They ended in: 3 induced abortions indicated for severe morphological anomalies (n = 2) and for SLE relapse (n = 1), 3 spontaneous miscarriages, and 10 deliveries of healthy newborns. CONCLUSION: The risk of ovarian failure depends essentially on the age at IVCY initiation. Pregnancy may occur during IVCY therapy, and an efficient contraception is mandatory. After IVCY withdrawal, pregnancy is possible with a favorable outcome in two-thirds of the cases.
This article was published in J Rheumatol
and referenced in Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology