Author(s): Coughlin MJ
In an 11-year retrospective study of 45 patients (60 feet) with juvenile hallux valgus, a multiprocedural approach was used to surgically correct the deformity. A Chevron osteotomy or McBride procedure was used for mild deformities, a distal soft tissue procedure with proximal first metatarsal osteotomy was used for moderate and severe deformities with MTP subluxation, and a double osteotomy (extra-articular correction) was used for moderate and severe deformities with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). The average hallux valgus correction was 17.2 degrees and the average correction of the 1-2 intermetatarsal angle was 5.3 degrees. Good and excellent results were obtained in 92% of cases using a multiprocedural approach. Eighty-eight percent of patients were female and 40% of deformities occurred at age 10 or younger. Early onset was characterized by increased deformity and an increased DMAA. Maternal transmission was noted in 72% of patients. An increased distal metatarsal articular angle was noted in 48% of cases. With subluxation of the first MTP joint, the average DMAA was 7.9 degrees. With a congruent joint, the average DMAA was 15.3 degrees. In patients where hallux valgus occurred at age 10 or younger, the DMAA was increased. First metatarsal length was compared with second metatarsal length. While the incidence of a long first metatarsal was similar to that in the normal population (30%), the DMAA was 15.8 degrees for a long first metatarsal and 6.0 degrees for a short first metatarsal. An increased DMAA may be the defining characteristic of juvenile hallux valgus. The success of surgical correction of a juvenile hallux valgus deformity is intimately associated with the magnitude of the DMAA. Moderate and severe pes planus occurred in 17% of cases, which was no different than the incidence in the normal population. No recurrences occurred in the presence of pes planus. Pes planus was not thought to have an affect on occurrence or recurrence of deformity. Moderate and severe metatarsus adductus was noted in 22% of cases, a rate much higher than that in the normal population. The presence of metatarsus adductus did not affect the preoperative hallux valgus angle or the average surgical correction of the hallux valgus angle. Constricting footwear was noted by only 24% of patients as playing a role in the development of juvenile hallux valgus. There were six recurrences of the deformities and eight complications (six cases of postoperative hallux varus, one case of wire breakage, and one case of undercorrection).