Author(s): Adam LA, Smith BJ, CalvaCerqueira D, Howe JR, Lal G
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Abstract BACKGROUND: The risk of multiglandular disease (MGD) dictates the extent of exploration in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Historically, young patients with PHPT were more likely to have MGD, but the existing literature is sparse and conflicting. We hypothesized that young adults (ages 16-40 years) without familial PHPT have a disease process similar to that in older patients. METHODS: A 22-year retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent neck exploration for PHPT at our tertiary care center. Altogether, 708 charts were reviewed for demographics, family history, laboratory values, operative findings, pathology, and outcomes. RESULTS: As a group, young adults comprised 14.0\% of the total population and were more likely to have preexisting familial disorders of PHPT (p < 0.01), therapeutic failure (p < 0.01), failure to identify an abnormal parathyroid at operation (p < 0.01), and higher reoperative rates (p = 0.02); they were less likely to have single-gland disease (p = 0.04). Young adults without a family history of the disease demonstrated no disease differences except for a higher rate of symptoms (p < 0.01). Additional analysis found that patients with a family history of hypercalcemia, a sole family member with PHPT, or nephrolithiasis ("possible" family history) were more likely to have MGD (relative risk 2.0). CONCLUSIONS: In this largest single-institution study of young adults with sporadic PHPT, we conclude that sporadic PHPT in young adults represents a disease entity similar to that in older patients, with no increased risk for MGD, and hence they can be managed with a similar surgical approach. Further studies are needed to assess the role of a "possible" family history as a risk factor for MGD.
This article was published in World J Surg
and referenced in Journal of Surgery