alexa Role of balloon angioplasty in the treatment of aortic coarctation.


Pediatrics & Therapeutics

Author(s): Rao PS, Chopra PS

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Abstract Since the initial report of coarctation balloon angioplasty in 1982, several groups have used this technique for native coarctations in neonates, infants, and children and for postoperative recoarctations. However, recommendations for use of balloon angioplasty as a treatment procedure of choice are clouded by reports of aneurysm development at the site of coarctation. Here we review our experience as well as that published in the literature, including Valvuloplasty and Angioplasty of Congenital Anomalies Registry data, and present evidence in support of balloon angioplasty as a therapeutic procedure of choice for treating native and recurrent postoperative aortic coarctations. Balloon angioplasty of native aortic coarctations in 20 neonates and infants 1 year old or less reduced peak systolic pressure gradient across the coarctation from 40 +/- 12 mm Hg (mean +/- standard deviation) to 11 +/- 8 mm Hg (p less than 0.001); no patient required immediate surgical intervention. The residual gradient at follow-up (mean follow-up, 12 months) in 16 infants was 18 +/- 16 mm Hg, a significant improvement (p less than 0.01) compared with preangioplasty values. In none of the patients did an aneurysm develop. Recoarctation developed in 5 (31\%) of the 16 infants and was successfully treated either by surgical resection (in 2) or by repeat balloon angioplasty (in 3). A comparison of mortality and recurrence rates between the balloon angioplasty and surgical groups was made with the help of data pooled from the literature published since 1980. The initial (7\% versus 23\%) and late (2\% versus 25\%) mortality and recoarctation (11\% versus 18\%) rates were higher (p less than 0.025) after surgical intervention than after balloon therapy. When only reports in which patients were operated on after 1979 were included in this type of analysis, the initial and late mortality rates remained higher (p less than 0.01) after operation than after angioplasty, and the recoarctation rates became similar (p greater than 0.1). Thirty-two children (greater than 1 year old) underwent balloon angioplasty of native coarctation with a resultant reduction in peak systolic pressure gradient from 48 +/- 19 mm Hg to 10 +/- 9 mm Hg (p less than 0.001), which continued to remain low (14 +/- 11 mm Hg; p less than 0.001) at follow-up catheterization in 24 children 13 months (mean) later. There were no immediate or late deaths. A small aneurysm developed in 1 patient (4\%) but did not require intervention. Recoarctation developed in 2 patients (8\%), and in both, repeat balloon angioplasty was performed with good results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
This article was published in Ann Thorac Surg and referenced in Pediatrics & Therapeutics

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