alexa Role of bone and kidney in tumor-induced hypercalcemia and its treatment with bisphosphonate and sodium chloride
Medicine

Medicine

Journal of General Practice

Author(s): Olav LM Bijvoet

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The efficacy of intravenous aminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate as treatment for the hypercalcemia of malignancy was examined in a phase II multicenter study in 132 patients with a large variety of primary tumors. This provided an opportunity for an analysis of the separate influences of bone resorption and renal calcium handling on the genesis and maintenance of hypercalcemia. The results demonstrated that increased bone resorption is the major contributory factor and that inhibition with bisphosphonate normalizes the serum calcium concentration within five days in more than 90 percent of patients. Hypercalcemia is sustained by an inability of the kidney to deal efficiently with a chronically increased calcium load. This is influenced by the requirements of volume regulation in the presence of a sodium diuretic effect of hypercalcemia and is very sensitive to induced variations of sodium load. In addition, in a minority of patients, direct renal actions of tumor-derived humoral factors adversely reduce the ability to excrete calcium. For optimal treatment of tumor-induced hypercalcemia, bisphosphonate treatment should be combined with intravenous administration of saline solution.

This article was published in The American Journal of Medicine and referenced in Journal of General Practice

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