Author(s): Anna Haduch A, Bromek E, Daniel WA
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Abstract This article focuses on recent research on the cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) catalyzed synthesis of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin in the brain and on the influence of psychotropic drugs on the activity of brain CYP2D. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed in rodents indicate that dopamine and serotonin may be formed in the brain via alternative CYP2D-mediated pathways, i.e., tyramine hydroxylation and 5-methoxytryptamine O-demethylation, respectively. The contribution of these alternative pathways to the total synthesis of brain neurotransmitters may be higher in humans and may be significantly increased under specific conditions, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and amino acid decarboxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase deficiency. These alternative pathways of neurotransmitter synthesis may also become more efficient when the CYP2D enzyme is mutated or activated by inducers (e.g., alcohol, nicotine, psychotropics), which may be of importance in some neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases. In addition to the previously observed influence of antidepressants and neuroleptics on CYP2D in the liver, the investigated drugs also produce an effect on CYP2D in the brain. However, their effect on brain CYP2D is different than that in the liver and is structure-dependent. The observed psychotropic drug-brain CYP2D interactions may be important for the metabolism of endogenous neuroactive substrates (e.g., monoaminergic neurotransmitters, neurosteroids) and for the local biotransformation of drugs. The results are discussed with regard to the contribution of CYP2D to the total synthesis of neurotransmitters in the brain in vivo as well as the possible significance of these alternative pathways in specific physiological and pathological conditions and in the pharmacological actions of psychotropic drugs.
This article was published in Pharmacol Rep
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology