Author(s): Cummings BS, Parker JC, Lash LH
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Abstract The toxicity and metabolism of trichloroethylene (TRI) were studied in renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. TRI was slightly toxic to both PT and DT cells, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450; substrate, reduced-flavoprotein:oxygen oxidoreductase [RH-hydroxylating or -epoxidizing]; EC 184.108.40.206) increased TRI toxicity only in DT cells. In untreated cells, glutathione (GSH) conjugation of TRI to form S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) was detected only in PT cells. Inhibition of P450 transiently increased DCVG formation in PT cells and resulted in detection of DCVG formation in DT cells. Formation of DCVG in PT cells was described by a two-component model (apparent Vmax values of 0.65 and 0.47 nmol/min per mg protein and Km values of 2.91 and 0.46 mM). Cytosol isolated from rat renal cortical, PT, and DT cells expressed high levels of GSH S-transferase (GST; RX:glutathione R-transferase; EC 220.127.116.11) alpha (GSTalpha) but not GSTpi. Low levels of GSTmu were detected in cortical and DT cells. Purified rat GSTalpha2-2 exhibited markedly higher affinity for TRI than did GSTalpha1-1 or GSTalpha1-2, but each isoform exhibited similar VmaX values. Triethyltinbromide (TETB) (9 microM) inhibited DCVG formation by purified GSTalpha-1 and GSTalpha2-2, but not GSTalpha1-2. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP) (4 microM) only inhibited DCVG formation by GSTalpha2-2. TETB and BSP inhibited approximately 90\% of DCVG formation in PT cytosol but had no effect in DT cytosol. This suggests that GSTalpha1-1 is the primary isoform in rat renal PT cells responsible for GSH conjugation of TRI. These data, for the first time, describe the metabolism of TRI by individual GST isoforms and suggest that DCVG feedback inhibits TRI metabolism by GSTs.
This article was published in Biochem Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research