Author(s): Galluzzo P, Caiazza F, Moreno S, Marino M
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Abstract The cellular functions regulated by 17beta-estradiol (E2) start after the hormone binds to its receptors (i.e., ERalpha and ERbeta). These act as ligand-dependent transcription factor transactivating target genes. In addition, E2 induces non-genomic actions, whose activation is triggered by a fraction of the ERs localized at the plasma membrane. Palmitoylation allows ERalpha to localize at the plasma membrane, to associate with caveolin-1, and, upon E2 stimulation, to activate rapid signals relevant for cell proliferation. The existence of a mechanism, which allows ERbeta localization at the plasma membrane and its putative role in anti-proliferative E2 effects is completely unknown. Here, the susceptibility of ERbeta to undergo palmitoylation and the role played by this process has been analyzed in DLD-1 containing endogenous ERbeta or in HeLa cells transiently transfected with ERbeta or ERalpha expression vectors. As for ERalpha, palmitoylation is necessary for ERbeta localization at the plasma membrane and its association with caveolin-1 but, in contrast to ERalpha, the E2 binding increases ERbeta association with caveolin-1 and the p38 member of MAPK family. Moreover, the palmitoyl acyl transferase (PAT) inhibitor blocks the ability of ERbeta-E2 complex to activate p38 impairing the receptor-dependent activation of downstream proapoptotic cascade (i.e., caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage). Consequently, palmitoylation must be considered to be a molecular device for ERbeta, which allows these receptors to interact with the plasma membrane and to regulate E2-induced non-genomic functions relevant to the anti-proliferative effect of this hormone.
This article was published in Endocr Relat Cancer
and referenced in Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy