alexa Role of glycogen content in insulin resistance in human muscle cells.
Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Metabolomics:Open Access

Author(s): Litherland GJ, Morris NJ, Walker M, Yeaman SJ

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Abstract We have used primary human muscle cell cultures to investigate the role of glycogen loading in cellular insulin resistance. Insulin pre-treatment for 2 h markedly impaired insulin signaling, as assessed by protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation. In contrast, insulin-dependent glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase (GS) activation, and GS sites 3 de-phosphorylation were impaired only after 5 h of insulin pre-treatment, whereas 2-deoxyglucose transport was only decreased after 18 h pre-treatment. Insulin-resistant glycogen synthesis was associated closely with maximal glycogen loading. Both glucose limitation and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment during insulin pre-treatment curtailed glycogen accumulation, and concomitantly restored insulin-sensitive glycogen synthesis and GS activation, although GS de-phosphorylation and PKB phosphorylation remained impaired. Conversely, glycogen super-compensation diminished insulin-sensitive glycogen synthesis and GS activity. Insulin acutely promoted GS translocation to particulate subcellular fractions; this was abolished by insulin pre-treatment, as was GS dephosphorylation therein. Limiting glycogen accumulation during insulin pre-treatment re-instated GS dephosphorylation in particulate fractions, whereas glycogen super-compensation prevented insulin-stimulated GS translocation and dephosphorylation. Our data suggest that diminished insulin signaling alone is insufficient to impair glucose disposal, and indicate a role for glycogen accumulation in inducing insulin resistance in human muscle cells. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This article was published in J Cell Physiol and referenced in Metabolomics:Open Access

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