alexa Role of hormones in mammary cancer initiation and progression.
Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

Journal of Cytology & Histology

Author(s): Russo IH, Russo J

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Breast cancer, the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women in the Western world, is a classical model of hormone dependent malignancy. There is substantial evidence that breast cancer risk is associated with prolonged exposure to female hormones, since early onset of menarche, late menopause, hormone replacement therapy and postmenopausal obesity are associated with greater cancer incidence. Among these hormonal influences a leading role is attributed to estrogens, either of ovarian or extra-ovarian origin, as supported by the observations that breast cancer does not develop in the absence of ovaries, ovariectomy causes regression of established malignancies, and in experimental animal models estrogens can induce mammary cancer. Estrogens induce in rodents a low incidence of mammary tumors after a long latency period, and only in the presence of an intact pituitary axis, with induction of pituitary hyperplasia or adenomas and hyperprolactinemia. Chemicals, radiation, viruses and genomic alterations have all been demonstrated to have a greater tumorigenic potential in rodents. Chemical carcinogens are used to generate the most widely studied rat models; in these models hormones act as promoters or inhibitors of the neoplastic process. The incidence and type of tumors elicited, however, are strongly influenced by host factors. The tumorigenic response is maximal when the carcinogen is administered to young and virgin intact animals in which the mammary gland is undifferentiated and highly proliferating. The atrophic mammary gland of hormonally-deprived ovariectomized or hypophysectomized animals does not respond to the carcinogenic stimulus. Administration of carcinogen to pregnant, parous or hormonally treated virgin rats, on the other hand, fails to elicit a tumorigenic response, a phenomenon attributed to the higher degree of differentiation of the mammary gland induced by the hormonal stimulation of pregnancy. In women a majority of breast cancers that are initially hormone dependent are manifested during the postmenopausal period. Estradiol plays a crucial role in their development and evolution. However, it is still unclear whether estrogens are carcinogenic to the human breast. The apparent carcinogenicity of estrogens is attributed to receptor-mediated stimulation of cellular proliferation. Increased proliferation could result in turn in accumulation of genetic damage and stimulation of the synthesis of growth factors that act on the mammary epithelial cells via an autocrine or paracrine loop. Alternatively estrogens may induce cell proliferation through negative feedback by removing the effect of one or several inhibitory factors present in the serum. Multidisciplinary studies are required for the elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of breast cancer. Understanding of such mechanisms is indispensable for developing a rational basis for its prevention and control.
This article was published in J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords