Author(s): Lin M, Rippe RA, Niemel O, Brittenham G, Tsukamoto H
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Abstract A redox-sensitive nuclear factor, NF-kappa B, induces transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in macrophages. The present study has investigated the role of iron in NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression by rat hepatic macrophages (HM). As an in vivo model, cholestatic liver injury was induced in rats by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL). During the first 2 wk after BDL, there was an increase in the hepatic level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) that was accompanied by the appearance of protein-malondialdehyde adducts in the periportal region. This increase was reduced after 3 wk. TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA levels in HM from the BDL rats were increased at 1 and 2 wk and attenuated at 3 wk. Gel mobility shift assay of HM nuclear extracts demonstrated the similar temporal pattern of enhanced NF-kappa B binding activity. Treatment of the BDL animals with 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (L-1), a lipophilic iron chelator, suppressed the increases in hepatic TBARS by 64\%, plasma alanine aminotransferase by 45\%, and HM TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA by > 84\%. Concomitantly, the HM NF-kappa B binding activity was reduced close to the level observed in sham-operated rats. Treatment of cultured HM with L-1 also blocked lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression at mRNA and protein levels. These results demonstrate that the iron chelator effectively blocks NF-kappa B activation and coordinate TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene upregulation by HM in cholestatic liver injury or under in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These findings support a pivotal role for iron in activation of NF-kappa B and cytokine gene expression by HM in vitro and in vivo.
This article was published in Am J Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System