Author(s): de Vries R, Borggreve SE, Dullaart RP
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Abstract Dyslipidaemia, hallmarked by low HDL cholesterol and high plasma triglycerides, is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These lipoprotein abnormalities represent major cardiovascular risk factors in these conditions. Among other factors, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) play an important role in an abnormal HDL metabolism in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. LPL hydrolyses lipoprotein triglycerides, thus providing lipids for HDL formation. In insulin resistant states, a decreased post-heparin plasma LPL activity contributes to a low HDL cholesterol, whereas an increased activity of HL reduces HDL particle size by hydrolysing its triglycerides and phospholipids. High HL activity coincides with low HDL cholesterol. The esterification of free cholesterol by LCAT increases HDL particle size. Subsequent CETP action results in transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL towards triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. This cholesteryl ester transfer process results in lower HDL cholesterol and indirectly decreases HDL size. Plasma cholesterol esterification is unaltered or increased, whereas cholesteryl ester transfer is enhanced in type 2 diabetes mellitus, abnormalities which are probably related to the degree of hypertriglyceridaemia. It is plausible that a low LPL activity contributes to premature atherosclerosis as observed in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the effects of high HL activity and altered plasma cholesterol esterification on atherosclerosis development are uncertain. Since the cholesteryl ester transfer process between lipoproteins provides a metabolic intermediate between low HDL cholesterol and high plasma triglycerides, hypertriglyceridaemia-associated accelerated transfer of cholesteryl ester out of HDL may be pathogenetically involved in the development of cardiovascular disease in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
This article was published in Clin Lab
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism