Author(s): Spiro RG
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Abstract Misfolded or incompletely assembled multisubunit glycoproteins undergo endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) regulated in large measure by their N-linked polymannose oligosaccharides. In this quality control system lectin interaction with Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) glycans after trimming with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) alpha-glucosidases and alpha-mannosidases sorts out persistently unfolded glycoproteins for N-deglycosylation and proteolytic degradation. Monoglucosylated (Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)) glycoproteins take part in the calnexin/calreticulin glucosylation-deglucosylation cycle, while the Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B product of ER mannosidase I interacts with EDEM. Proteasomal degradation requires retrotranslocation into the cytosol through a Sec61 channel and deglycosylation by peptide: N-glycosidase (PNGase); in alternate models both PNGase and proteasomes may be either free in the cytosol or ER membrane-imbedded/attached. Numerous proteins appear to undergo nonproteasomal degradation in which deglycosylation and proteolysis take place in the ER lumen. The released free oligosaccharides (OS) are transported to the cytosol as OS-GlcNAc(2) along with similar components produced by the hydrolytic action of the oligosaccharyltransferase, where they together with OS from the proteasomal pathway are trimmed to Man(5)GlcNAc(1) by the action of cytosolic endo-beta- N-acetylglucosaminidase and alpha-mannosidase before entering the lysosomes. Some misfolded glycoproteins can recycle between the ER, intermediate and Golgi compartments, where they are further processed before ERAD. Moreover, properly folded glycoproteins with mannose-trimmed glycans can be deglucosylated in the Golgi by endomannosidase, thereby releasing calreticulin and permitting formation of complex OS. A number of regulatory controls have been described, including the glucosidase-glucosyltransferase shuttle, which controls the level of Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol, and the unfolded protein response, which enhances synthesis of components of the quality control system.
This article was published in Cell Mol Life Sci
and referenced in Journal of Glycobiology