Author(s): Gonzalez PK, Doctrow SR, Malfroy B, Fink MP, Gonzalez PK, Doctrow SR, Malfroy B, Fink MP
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Abstract Using Caco-2BBe monolayers as a model of the intestinal epithelium, we tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen metabolites contribute to lactic acid-induced hyperpermeability. Compared to monolayers incubated at normal pH (i.e., 7.4) monolayers incubated in medium titrated to extracellular pH (pHo) 5.0 with 10 mM lactic acid demonstrated increased permeability to both fluorescein sulfonic acid (FS) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (average molecular mass = 4000 Da; FD4). Lactic acid-induced hyperpermeability to both FS and FD4 was reduced by adding either 30 microM EUK-8, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, or catalase (10(4) U/mL). Incubation of monolayers with lactic acid increased cellular malondialdehyde content, a measure of lipid peroxidation. EUK-8 (30 microM) completely abrogated this effect. Incubation with ferrous sulfate (100 microM) exacerbated both lactic acid-induced hyperpermeability to FS and lactic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. Iron chelation with 1 mM diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-trisodium calcium salt attenuated lactic acid-induced hyperpermeability, whereas iron-loaded DTPA (1 mM) was not protective. Treatment with DTPA-trisodium calcium salt also ameliorated lactic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. Incubation with lactic acid (pHo 5.0) for 16 h increased the cellular content of low molecular weight iron species. Incubation with lactic acid (pHo 5.0) for 24 h significantly increased the percentage of oxidized protein-bound thiols in Caco-2BBe cells. We conclude that lactic acidosis induces hyperpermeability in Caco-2BBe monolayers, in part, via an iron-dependent increase in reactive oxygen metabolite-mediated damage.
This article was published in Shock
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research