Author(s): Ram PA, Waxman DJ
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Abstract Growth hormone (GH)-inducible suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS/CIS proteins) inhibit GH receptor (GHR) signaling to STAT5b via phosphotyrosine-dependent binding interactions with the tyrosine kinase JAK2 (SOCS-1) and/or the cytoplasmic tail of GHR (CIS and SOCS-3). Presently, we investigate the mechanism of CIS inhibition and CIS's role in down-regulating GHR-JAK2 signaling to STAT5b in cells exposed to GH continuously. CIS is shown to inhibit GHR-JAK2 signaling by two distinct mechanisms: by a partial inhibition that is decreased at elevated STAT5b levels and may involve competition between CIS and STAT5b for common GHR cytoplasmic tail phosphotyrosine-binding sites; and by a time-dependent inhibition, not seen with SOCS-1 or SOCS-3, that involves proteasome action. Investigation of the latter mechanism revealed that GH stimulates degradation of CIS, but not SOCS-3. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked this protein degradation and also blocked the inhibitory action of CIS, but not that of SOCS-1 or SOCS-3, on STAT5b signaling. Proteasome-dependent degradation of CIS, most likely in the form of a (GHR-JAK2)-CIS complex, is therefore proposed to be an important step in the time-dependent CIS inhibition mechanism. Finally, the down-regulation of GHR-JAK2 signaling to STAT5b seen in continuous GH-treated cells could be prevented by treatment of cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or by expression of CIS-R107K, a selective, dominant-negative inhibitor of CIS activity. These findings lead us to propose that the cytokine signaling inhibitor CIS is a key mediator of the STAT5b desensitization response seen in cells and tissues exposed to GH chronically, such as adult female rat liver.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology