Author(s): Lee MH, Zhao R, Phan L, Yeung SC
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Abstract The constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (COP9 or CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex found in plants and animals. Because of the homology between the COP9 signalosome and the 19S lid complex of the proteosome, COP9 has been postulated to play a role in regulating the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Many tumor suppressor and oncogene products are regulated by ubiquitination- and proteosome-mediated protein degradation. Therefore, it is conceivable that COP9 plays a significant role in cancer, regulating processes relevant to carcinogenesis and cancer progression (e.g., cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis). In mammalian cells, it consists of eight subunits (CSN1 to CSN8). The relevance and importance of some subunits of COP9 to cancer are emerging. However, the mechanistic regulation of each subunit in cancer remains unclear. Among the CSN subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 are the only two that each contain an MPN (Mpr1p and Pad1p N-terminal) domain. The deneddylation activity of an MPN domain toward cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL) may coordinate CRL-mediated ubiquitination activity. More recent evidence shows that CSN5 and CSN6 are implicated in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of important mediators in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which some CSN subunits are involved in cancer to provide a much needed perspective regarding COP9 in cancer research, hoping that these insights will lay the groundwork for cancer intervention.
This article was published in Cell Cycle
and referenced in Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis