Author(s): Camerer E, Cornelissen I, Kataoka H, Duong DN, Zheng YW,
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Abstract Endotoxemia is often associated with extreme inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) mediate cellular responses to coagulation proteases, including platelet activation and endothelial cell reactions predicted to promote inflammation. These observations suggested that PAR activation by coagulation proteases generated in the setting of endotoxemia might promote platelet activation, leukocyte-mediated endothelial injury, tissue damage, and death. Toward testing these hypotheses, we examined the effect of PAR deficiencies that ablate platelet and endothelial activation by coagulation proteases in a mouse endotoxemia model. Although coagulation was activated as measured by thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) production and antithrombin III (ATIII) depletion, Par1(-/-), Par2(-/-), Par4(-/-), Par2(-/-):Par4(-/-), and Par1(-/-):Par2(-/-) mice all failed to show improved survival or decreased cytokine responses after endotoxin challenge compared with wild type. Thus, our results fail to support a necessary role for PARs in linking coagulation to inflammation or death in this model. Interestingly, endotoxin-induced thrombocytopenia was not diminished in Par4(-/-) mice. Thus, a mechanism independent of platelet activation by thrombin was sufficient to cause thrombocytopenia in our model. These results raise the possibility that decreases in platelet count in the setting of sepsis may not be caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation but instead report on a sometimes parallel but independent process.
This article was published in Blood
and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense