alexa Sacral epidural electrodes for voiding in the chronic spinal dog.
Physicaltherapy & Rehabilitation

Physicaltherapy & Rehabilitation

International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Author(s): Walter JS, Robinson CJ, Khan T, Wheeler JS, Wurster RD

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Abstract Recent reports have shown that electrical stimulation of the bladder wall or sacral nerves is effective for bladder management in the spinal cord injured (SCI) patient. However, less invasive methods are needed for electrode implantation. A modified percutaneous procedure for implanting needle electrodes in the sacral canal was evaluated. Stimulation with these electrodes were effective for inducing voiding with little residual volume after the recovery of bladder reflexes, 3 weeks after experimental spinal cord injury in the dog. An optimum electrode arrangement involved a single midline monopolar electrode located between sacral foramina L7 and S1. However, at low stimulating current, lateral electrodes adjacent to sacral nerves were more effective than midline electrodes for inducing voiding. Stimulation parameters that were effective for daily voiding were 10 pps, 1.5-5 mA, 0.3 ms pulse duration, and 2- to 3-second stimulation periods.
This article was published in Stereotact Funct Neurosurg and referenced in International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

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