alexa Sacral malformations: use of imaging to optimise sacral nerve stimulation.
Reproductive Medicine

Reproductive Medicine

Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders: Current Research

Author(s): Povo A, , , Arantes M, ,

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Abstract INTRODUCTION: The success of sacral nerve stimulation, a common treatment for pelvic floor disorders, depends on correct placement of the electrodes through the sacral foramina. When the bony anatomy and topography of the sacrum and sacral spinal nerves are intact, this is easily achieved; where sacral anomalies exist, it can be challenging. A better understanding of common sacral malformations can improve the success of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) electrode placement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed 998 consecutive MRI scans performed to investigate low back pain in patients who had undergone CT and/or X-ray. RESULTS: Congenital sacral malformations were found in 24.1\%, the most common being sacral meningeal cysts (16\%) and spina bifida occulta (9.9\%). Others were lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (2.5\%), anterior occult meningocele (0.5\%), partial sacral agenesis (0.2\%) and vertebral dysplasia of S1 (0.2\%). CONCLUSION: This radiologic review uncovered a high incidence of sacral malformations, and most were asymptomatic. All surgeons who perform SNS should have a basic understanding of sacral malformations, their incidence and effect on foraminal anatomy. Imaging will aid procedural planning. This article was published in Int J Colorectal Dis and referenced in Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders: Current Research

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