alexa Salt tolerance in wild Hordeum species is associated with restricted entry of Na+ and Cl- into the shoots.
Agri and Aquaculture

Agri and Aquaculture

Rice Research: Open Access

Author(s): Garthwaite AJ, von Bothmer R, Colmer TD, Garthwaite AJ, von Bothmer R, Colmer TD

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Abstract Eight wild Hordeum species: H. bogdanii, H. intercedens, H. jubatum, H. lechleri, H. marinum, H. murinum, H. patagonicum, and H. secalinum, and cultivated barley (H. vulgare) were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 150, 300, or 450 mol m(-3) NaCl. In saline conditions, the wild Hordeum species (except H. murinum) had better Na+ and Cl- 'exclusion', and maintained higher leaf K+, compared with H. vulgare. For example, at 150 mol m(-3) NaCl, the K+:Na+ in the youngest, fully expanded leaf blades of the wild Hordeum species was, on average, 5.2 compared with 0.8 in H. vulgare. In H. marinum grown in 300 mol m(-3) NaCl, K+ contributed 35\% to leaf psi(pi), whereas Na+ and Cl- accounted for only 6\% and 10\%, respectively. By comparison, in H. vulgare grown at 300 mol m(-3) NaCl, K+ accounted for 19\% and Na+ and Cl- made up 21\% and 25\% of leaf psi(pi), respectively. At 300 mol m(-3) NaCl, glycinebetaine and proline together contributed almost 15\% to psi(pi) in the expanding leaf blades of H. marinum, compared with 8\% in H. vulgare. Decreased tissue water content under saline conditions made a substantial contribution to declines in leaf psi(pi) in the wild Hordeum species, but not in H. vulgare. A number of the wild Hordeum species were markedly more salt tolerant than H. vulgare. H. marinum and H. intercedens, as examples, had relative growth rates 30\% higher than H. vulgare in 450 mol m(-3) NaCl. Hordeum vulgare also suffered up to 6-fold more dead leaf material (as a proportion of shoot dry mass) than the wild Hordeum species. Thus, several salt-tolerant wild Hordeum species were identified, and these showed an exceptional capacity to 'exclude' Na+ and Cl- from their shoots. This article was published in J Exp Bot and referenced in Rice Research: Open Access

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