Author(s): Rhoads RP, Johnson RM, Rathbone CR, Liu X, TemmGrove C,
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Abstract Muscle regeneration involves the coordination of myogenesis and revascularization to restore proper muscle function. Myogenesis is driven by resident stem cells termed satellite cells (SC), whereas angiogenesis arises from endothelial cells and perivascular cells of preexisting vascular segments and the collateral vasculature. Communication between myogenic and angiogenic cells seems plausible, especially given the number of growth factors produced by SC. To characterize these interactions, we developed an in vitro coculture model composed of rat skeletal muscle SC and microvascular fragments (MVF). In this system, isolated epididymal MVF suspended in collagen gel are cultured over a rat SC monolayer culture. In the presence of SC, MVF exhibit greater indices of angiogenesis than MVF cultured alone. A positive dose-dependent effect of SC conditioned medium (CM) on MVF growth was observed, suggesting that SC secrete soluble-acting growth factor(s). Next, we specifically blocked VEGF action in SC CM, and this was sufficient to abolish satellite cell-induced angiogenesis. Finally, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcriptional regulator of VEGF gene expression, was found to be expressed in cultured SC and in putative SC in sections of in vivo stretch-injured rat muscle. Hypoxic culture conditions increased SC HIF-1alpha activity, which was positively associated with SC VEGF gene expression and protein levels. Collectively, these initial observations suggest that a heretofore unexplored aspect of satellite cell physiology is the initiation of a proangiogenic program.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Cell Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology