alexa Seasonal dynamics of the hepatotoxic microcystins in various organs of four freshwater bivalves from the large eutrophic lake Taihu of subtropical China and the risk to human consumption.
Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering

Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

Author(s): Chen J, Xie P

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Abstract So far, little is known on the distribution of hepatotoxic microcystin (MC) in various organs of bivalves, and there is no study on MC accumulation in bivalves from Chinese waters. Distribution pattern and seasonal dynamics of MC-LR, -YR and -RR in various organs (hepatopancreas, intestine, visceral mass, gill, foot, and rest) of four edible freshwater mussels (Anodonta woodiana, Hyriopsis cumingii, Cristaria plicata, and Lamprotula leai) were studied monthly during Oct. 2003-Sep. 2004 in Lake Taihu with toxic cyanobacterial blooms in the summer. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of MCs in the organs were done by LC-MS and HPLC. The major toxins were present in the hepatopancreas (45.5-55.4\%), followed by visceral mass with substantial amount of gonad (27.6-35.5\%), whereas gill and foot were the least (1.8-5.1\%). The maximum MC contents in the hepatopancreas, intestine, visceral mass, gill, foot, and rest were 38.48, 20.65, 1.70, 0.64, 0.58, and 0.61 microg/g DW, respectively. There were rather good positive correlation in MC contents between intestines and hepatopancreas of the four bivalves (r=0.75-0.97, p<0.05). There appeared to be positive correlations between the maximum MC content in the hepatopancreas and the delta13C (r=0.919) or delta15N (r=0.878) of the foot, indicating that the different MC content in the hepatopancreas might be due to different food ingestion. A glutathione (GSH) conjugate of MC-LR was also detected in the foot sample of C. plicata. Among the foot samples analyzed, 54\% were above the provisional WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI) level, and the mean daily intakes from the four bivalves were 8-23.5 times the TDI value when the bivalves are eaten as a whole, suggesting the high risk of consuming bivalves in Lake Taihu. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article was published in Environ Toxicol and referenced in Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

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