Author(s): Olayemi IK, Ande AT, Ayanwale AV, Mohammed AZ, Bello IM,
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Abstract The influence of seasonal changes on epidemiological and entomological indices of malaria transmission in North Central Nigeria was elucidated in a series of studies carried out between January 2004 and December 2009. The climate in the study area was divided into three seasonal periods namely, rainy (May-October), dry (December-March) and transitional (April and November), during which larval and adult anopheline mosquito collections were carried out and assessed for densities, sporozoite infection and parity rates and potentials for malaria transmission. The results indicated that the climate in the study area was clearly seasonal, with close similarities in the patterns of distribution of the climatic factors in the study sites. Mosquito densities, both at the adult and larval stages (i.e., 29.35 +/- 5.10 adult mosquitoes/man/night and 10.36 +/- 3.34 larvae/dip, respectively), were significantly (p<0.05) highest during the rainy season. However, while the former varied significantly in the three seasonal periods, the latter was not significantly different during the dry and transitional seasons. Malaria transmission risks, in terms of sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates, was significantly (p<0.05) least in the dry season (i.e., 2.89 +/- 1.25\% and 0.37 +/- 0.21 infective bite/man/night, respectively) but the two variables were not significantly (p>0.05) different during the transitional and rainy seasons. Adult mosquito daily survival rate and adult longevity were least in the dry season (26.52 +/- 11.80\% and 6.80 days, respectively) and significantly (p<0.05) highest during the rainy season (72.28 +/- 4.00\% and 16.95 +/- 4.20 days, respectively). Parous rates of the mosquitoes and duration of sporogony had distinct distribution pattern from the other variables investigated. While, significantly highest parous rates were recorded in the transitional season (86.00 +/- 4.30\%), duration of sporogony was not significantly (p>0.05) different during the three seasons. The epidemiology of urban malaria in North Central Nigeria was discussed from the view points of the these results and concluded that the findings should promote the development of informed temporally-targeted vector control programs for the area.
This article was published in Pak J Biol Sci
and referenced in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion