alexa Secondary gain concept: a review of the scientific evidence.
Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology

Journal of Pain & Relief

Author(s): Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Cutler RB, Rosomoff RS

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The "secondary gain" concept originated in the psychoanalytic literature, where it was never vigorously examined. The purpose of this review is to determine if there are scientific studies that have explored the validity of this concept. DESIGN: A computer and manual literature review yielded 166 references in which primary, secondary, and tertiary gain were mentioned. Twenty-four (14.5\%) of these reports were "secondary gain" studies. Fourteen "reinforcement" studies were also found. These 38 studies were grouped according to topics and reviewed in detail. SETTING: Any medical treatment setting including pain treatment was utilized in the review procedure, i.e., no exclusion criteria. PATIENTS: Any patient type, including those suffering from chronic pain, were utilized in the review procedure, i.e., no exclusion criteria. RESULTS: A significant but limited number of studies have investigated the "secondary gain" concept, and the results of some of these studies are in conflict. Results of some studies, however, are remarkably consistent in supporting the importance of "secondary gain" to behavior. Some studies have methodological flaws, usually relating to how the presence of secondary gain was established. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results of the reviewed studies support the potential importance of the "secondary gain" concept to understanding illness behavior and underscore a need for future research in this area.
This article was published in Clin J Pain and referenced in Journal of Pain & Relief

Relevant Expert PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords