Author(s): Slavin RE, Inada K
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Abstract The authors review 20 cases of segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) including 3 newly reported cases. SAM developed in areas of vascular distention in 2 of the latter cases: 1 in utero in the heart of a recipient of a twin transfusion syndrome and the other in the jejunum secondary to partial venous obstruction. In the third case, it occurred in a patient with Raynaud disease. Characterizing SAM are injurious and reparative lesions that occur in the media and/or at the adventitial medial junction. Four distinctive alterations are recognized: (1) mediolysis, (2) a tearing separation of the outer media from adventitia, (3) arterial gaps, and (4) a florid reparative response that replaces zones of mediolysis and fills areas of medial adventitial separation. The repair can transform SAM into lesions indistinguishable from common types of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD.) A venous angiopathy involving large and medium-sized veins accompanies SAM. It features medial muscle vacuolar change with lysis leading to apparent separation of residual muscle bundles. Immunostaining shows endothelin-1 (ET-1) decorating adventitial capillaries in SAM and neighboring arteries, in capillaries of adjoining tissues, and outlining smooth muscle cell membranes in adjacent veins including those of the venous angiopathy. The significance of these changes is uncertain. Vasospasm is believed to cause SAM, but ET-1 is not the direct pressor agent responsible for this condition. The reason(s) for synthesis and release of ET-1 in SAM are still hypothetical, but local perturbations in vascular tone may be an important factor. ET-1 may be indirectly play a role in SAM by cross-talking and potentiating the activities of other vasoconstrictors such as norepinephrine and by orchestrating its reparative phase.
This article was published in Int J Surg Pathol
and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology