Author(s): Langford RM, Mehta V
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Abstract Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce inflammation and hyperalgesia by decreasing prostaglandin E2 production. Traditional NSAIDs (inhibiting both COX-1 and 2) though ubiquitous in peri-operative pain practice, have well-known gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular and other risks. This article systematically addresses the main efficacy and safety issues pertaining to NSAID and selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) use, focusing on the acute pain context, particularly post-operative pain management. NSAIDs and coxibs are of proven analgesic efficacy in post-operative pain control, and their opioid-sparing role in multimodal analgesia, leads to significantly reduced opioid related side effects. Although GI risk is regarded as less of an issue in short-term therapy, in patients with a past history of peptic ulceration who are denied NSAIDs, coxibs may be considered a suitable alternative. In the peri-operative setting, coxibs confer an additional advantage over NSAIDs by preserving the platelet thromboxane production and clotting. Cardiovascular safety has been assessed for the parenteral parecoxib and its active moiety valdecoxib, and was found to be satisfactory in major non-cardiac surgery, but increased thromboembolic complications occurred in coronary artery bypass surgery leading to contra-indication for this type of surgery. Coxibs and NSAIDs have similar renal effects and caution or avoidance is required with renal disease or reduced peri-operative renal perfusion. Coxibs may be safer in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. Bone healing effects remain controversial, but only a few days therapy appears to be safe.
This article was published in Biomed Pharmacother
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism