Author(s): Zhang Z, Rhind SM, Kerr C, Osprey M, Kyle CE
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Abstract A selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estriol (E3) and bisphenol A (BPA) from soil samples is described. The on-line clean-up of soil by SPLE was achieved using different organic matter retainers, including silica, alumina and Florisil, the most effective being silica. Thus, different amounts of silica, in conjunction with different extraction solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, isohexane and dichloromethane), either alone or in combination, were used to extract the target chemicals from spiked soil samples. It was shown that 3g silica resulted in satisfactory rates of recovery of target compounds and acetone:dichloromethane (1:3, v/v) was efficient in extracting and eluting estrogenic compounds for SPLE. Variables affecting the SPLE efficiency, including temperature and pressure were studied; the optimum parameters were 60°C and 1500 psi, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method were 0.02-0.37 ng g(-1) for the different estrogenic chemicals studied. The outputs using the proposed method were linear over the range from 0.1 to 120 ng g(-1) for E1, E2, EE2, 0.2-120 ng g(-1) for E3, and 0.5-120 ng g(-1) for BPA. The optimized method was further verified by performing spiking experiments in natural soil matrices; good rates of recovery and reproducibility were achieved for all selected compounds and the method was successfully applied to soil samples from Northeast Scotland, for the determination of the target compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Anal Chim Acta
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta