Author(s): Benagiano G, Bastianelli C, Farris M
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Synthetic compounds can bind to progesterone receptors and these progesterone receptor ligands exhibit a spectrum of activities ranging from pure antagonism to a mixture of agonism and antagonism. These substances have been classified as antiprogestins or as selective progesterone receptor modulators. OBJECTIVE: There are several hundred selective progesterone receptor modulators available, although only a dozen or so have been evaluated to any significant extent. The best-known selective progesterone receptor modulators are mifepristone (RU 486), asoprisnil (J 867), onapristone (ZK 98299), ulipristal (CDB 2914), Proellex() (CDB 4124), ORG 33628 and ORG 31710. METHODS: A careful evaluation of existing major review papers and of recently published articles was carried out for the indications under review, focusing not only on mifepristone, but also on those other selective progesterone receptor modulators for which data are available. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Outside pregnancy, selective progesterone receptor modulators are used or have been tested clinically for a number of indications in reproductive medicine: as oral contraceptives, alone or in combination with a progestin, to improve cycle control in users of progestin-only contraceptives, as emergency contraceptives, for the medical treatment of uterine fibroids, in cases of endometriosis and premenstrual syndrome and to improve ovarian stimulation prior to in vitro fertilisation. In the authors' opinion, as of today, few applications outside pregnancy seem worthy of large-scale use: emergency contraception and long-term medical management of uterine fibroids and possibly of endometriosis.
This article was published in Expert Opin Pharmacother
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy